Still, weapons transfers are sometimes conducted in order to shift the balance of power in a military conflict or to achieve some combination of many interwoven goals. This paper seeks to examine some of the transnational security implications of arms transfers, specifically focusing on U. Because information relating to the transfer of arms to non-state actors is not well publicized in most cases, the majority of statistical information in this paper will focus on government-to-government arms sales.
The case studies presented in this paper, however, will focus on the foreign policy implications associated with arms bound for a number of sub-state groups including the Afghan mujahedeen and Libyan and Syrian rebels. To accomplish these goals, this paper: 1 provides an overview of the foreign policy objectives of international arms transfers, detailing the interrelationship of arms transfers and foreign policy with a case study of U. Countries distribute arms to other states or sub-state groups for a variety of strategic purposes.
These purposes can be consolidated into four overarching themes according to Professor Frederic Pearson, an expert in arms trade issues. First, many of the goals states have through the transfer of arms include homeland defense and the impression it offers of autonomy and self-sufficiency. Second, states also provide arms to other countries in order to reap the benefits associated with arms-supplying states, the idea being that the weapons this state can provide are better than those of its rivals.
This strategic use of U. In this case, the Nixon administration succumbed to resupplying the Israelis with weapons, though Nixon had hoped to delay doing so to pressure Israel into a negotiated settlement with its Arab rivals. This has nothing to do with Israel, or with you.
Third, states also transfer weapons to other countries or sub-state groups to support those they desire to maintain or to attain regional power, or to counter those already in power. An illustrious example of this foreign policy goal is evidenced in the U. Fourth, states provide arms to other countries or sub-state groups in an effort to seek influence over them. Thus, for the preceding four reasons, the United States and other countries have historically supplied conventional arms to governments and non-state actors throughout the world.
Throughout the Cold War, both U. When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan, for example, the United States was determined to undermine the spread of communism by supporting what it perceived to be friendly forces that shared a common goal.
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That support was partly manifested in weapon transfers to the Afghan mujahedeen to fight their mutual enemies. Less than a year later, terrorists kidnapped the U. Unsurprisingly, this series of events fostered concern among U. The Shah fell in Iran earlier that year, placing an increased burden on a secure oil supply for the United States and its allies. Due to the risk of compromised U.
American officials believed that if the Soviet Union could successfully spread its influence over Afghanistan, Pakistan and other countries might be next, directly affecting U.
President Carter immediately reacted to the Soviet invasion by signing a presidential finding on covert action to funnel arms and to provide training to the Afghan resistance movement. With the loss of Iran as an ally and dwindling options for access to Afghanistan, U. Pakistan became the frontline in the resistance against the Soviet occupation.
Congress secretly provided large sums of money that incrementally increased funding of the U. The Chinese intelligence services also provided weapons to support the U. Likewise, Polish army officers secretly sold their surplus Soviet weapons to support the U.
Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, - Digital Library
However, the Afghan rebels were not the only group receiving U. In effect, the United States provided handsome arms transfers to Pakistan as a quid pro quo for the United States to use Pakistani territory for its operations. The deal also allowed the United States to use the Pakistani intelligence apparatus to funnel arms and supplies across the border and train the Afghan mujahedeen. Originally far less advanced F-5G aircraft were to be provided as part of the arrangement, but the United States later agreed to provide the more advanced arms they requested in exchange for Pakistani assistance arming the mujahedeen.
Arming the Pakistanis was also perceived as a measure that would deter the Soviets from attacking Pakistan. By , significant advancements could be seen from the joint U. On February 15, , the last Soviet soldier departed Afghanistan, leaving the country in a state of disarray after a series of government coups and proxy wars spanning 20 years.
Israel among top arms exporters and importers
When President Carter initiated the arms program in , U. All else aside, this effort was successful and the policy worked. Despite the perceived success of the U. To the discredit of the United States, little effort went into contingency planning once these near-term goals were accomplished. In , Islamist mujahedeen forces united under the Taliban and replaced the Afghan government with a fiercely anti-American Islamist regime using weapons previously provided by the United States. The Taliban went on to ruthlessly rule much of the country under strict Islamic law.
They expanded the already widespread network of Islamic schools built over the previous decade, which added to the radicalization of the population. The Taliban also created a safe haven for international terrorists to converge and plot external attacks. They harbored Osama Bin Laden and his al-Qaeda followers, providing them the freedom to train scores of terrorists including those that would ultimately collude to attack the United States in September Thus, while the U.
Together, these countries accounted for three-quarters of all weapons exports between and Reported data suggests that developing countries are routinely the primary recipients of arms sales from the United States and other suppliers, with the percentage of global arms sale agreements to such countries steadily increasing from The Untied States dominates the global arms trade. The region with the second largest imports of U. And, with his departure there must be a great jockeying to find someone who will continue to hide whatever needs to be hidden. Given the value of the gold for a few people, although not for the many, there could be a lot which needs to be unveiled.
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One cannot exclude, however, that many people prefer the devil that is known to the devil that is unknown. Kafando who obtained a law degree from the University of Bordeaux in , a degree in Science Po from the Institute of Political Science in Paris and a diploma from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and diplomatic training in Geneva, in diplomacy, in At 72 years old he would be considered less likely to hold on to power for long, than a younger man.
While Josephine Ouedraogo would more clearly represent change, the interim president is not allowed to run in the elections. Probable Youga Gold Mine In passing we must mention reported conflict between miners and administration at the Youga mine owned by Burkina Mining Co. The Executive mining director is said to be Mamadou Zida. In such a small country one might guess a possible kinship tie between Mamadou and Isaac Zida, but if they represented the same interests then Canada should have been ecstatic about the coup, and they claimed not to be.
Kin or coincidence? And, would it matter? Memorial of the murder of Norbert Zongo. During the Cold War Russia and the US, Canada, and probably European countries, competed in Burkina and elsewhere, giving away scholarships to win the hearts and minds of the future government officials and leaders. France has always been there. But, did Russia really go away? Russia also exports weapons to Burkina Faso.
See in Notes at bottom. Nordgold reportedly had , or more trees uprooted from a nature reserve which had long resisted drought, to build the Bissa Gold Mine. Alexey Mordashev owns about Plus there are the less sexy manganese and phosphate found in fertilizer and cola and there has been prospection for dangerous uranium mining. Whoever controls the gold could become very wealthy, especially a high grade site, which could be valuable even with a low gold price.
Already, according to a source at the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the industrial exploitation of gold brought billion francs CFA million euros , or about million US Dollars to the public treasury for a production of 32 metric tons of gold in The country has a whole department devoted to the debt! This million dollars could give the How much more is being taken out of the country, even as its fragile environment is destroyed?
The population of Burkina Faso has doubled since when Thomas Sankara, who was encouraging the use of birth control and food independence, was assassinated.
If the environment is to be destroyed, how will the people survive? Much of the land is fragile. Taiwan and China both appear zen about Zida. Nonetheless, he would also not have been the first soldier in history trained by empire who revolted against empire. The situation will be at least one year shaking out until the elections. In that time anything can happen. Italy is also involved in South Stream via largely government owned Eni.
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Win-win for Dassault. France has also frequently used foreign military sales as an important means for underwriting development and procurement of new weapons systems for its own military forces. France has just arrived in the region with 3, troops. The USA is supposed to be sending about 3, for Ebola and has an unknown number already there.
A major concern of the US appears to be protecting the pipeline from Chad to Cameroon and other oil and gas interests in the region. For France it would be protecting its uranium mines, and the pipeline for its energy needs, as well as oil and gas interests in the region. There is also the debt service.
The US, for instance, borrows money in order to loan it! Robert Hundemer observes a Burkinabe student taking a measurement during a center of balance practical exercise. Hundemer and Sgt. They worked as a U. The pair assisted 23 Burkinabe Armed Forces students to learn how to build deployment capacity for conducting peacekeeping, counterterrorism or humanitarian relief operations.